Paleontology is the branch of biology that studies the forms of life that existed in the past geologic periods and eras, mainly by studying and scrutinizing of its remains, the fossils. Basically, fossils are those what is left and remnants of a dead animal or a plant that can be seen these days that has been ingenuously planted on rocks and other form of hard earthly surfaces.
Although, of course, it doesn’t mean that the said “remains” are the real skeletons or the actual plant rather fossils can be a petrified product of the original and also be the imprints like footprints. Dinosaur Fossils are believed and considered to have been submerged on water before, for the reason of the belief of that the remains of animal or plant was first covered by a soft soil and after some times layers of it gathered on it, hardened, solidify and then were pressed on together by natural processes. The water that is made up of minerals goes through the layers and changed the plant or animal relics into a rock like appearance and features.
These fossils are located all through the earth’s sedimentary layers. Almost 95.0% of all earth’s fossil recorded comes from the remains of marine invertebrates, 4.74% are from plants and estimate of 0.25% are land invertebrates and 0.0125% are a vertebrate. Among those vertebrates, the majority comes from fishes. Furthermore, those 95% vertebrates are found to have only one bone or less.
Through these dinosaur fossils, people of modern days are able to recognize that there are animals living here on earth even before the existence of the first man. This, in one way or another made us realize the importance of animals consequently believing that modern animals should be preserved as much as possible. These “leftovers” also give us a picture of what the earth looks like before now.
Not all dinosaur fossils are equally famous, or have had the same profound effect on paleontology. Most dinosaurs are “diagnosed” by paleontologists based not on complete skeletons, or even near-complete skeletons, but scattered, disconnected bones like skulls, vertebrae and femurs. Here are some famous dinosaur fossils that changed, sharpened, or completely altered the views of working scientists (and the general public) about dinosaurs and other prehistoric reptiles.
When the partial femur of Megalosaurus was unearthed in England in 1676, a professor at Oxford University identified it as belonging to a human giant–since 17th-century theologists couldn’t wrap their minds around the concept of huge, lumbering reptiles from a land before time. It took another 150 years, in 1824, for William Buckland to give this genus its distinctive name, and nearly 20 years after that for Megalosaurus to be conclusively identified as a dinosaur (by the famous paleontologist Richard Owen).
It’s rare enough to discover a new genus of dinosaur–so how about a new genus of dinosaur possessing not one, but two, never-before-seen anatomical features? Imagine the wonderment of the Spanish research team that dug up Concavenator, a large theropod of early Cretaceous Europe that sported 1) a triangular structure on its lower back, just above the hips, that may have supported a kind of sail or fatty hump; and 2) what appear to be “quill knobs” on its forearms, bony structures that probably sprouted small sprays of feathers (quill knobs have been identified on much smaller feathered dinosaurs, but never a genus as big as Concavenator).
Learning about Dinosaurs Fossils show that a stegosaurus had some dinosaur bones have turned a large body.into fossils. It had a small head and a small mouth.Paleontologists look at these fossils. Paleontologists think this dinosaur ate plants.These fossils give clues about what dinosaurslooked like.
Do you know what are fossils? In layman’s terms, the fossil is life in the distant past remains or relics of organisms into the stone. On Earth in the long geological age, had lived in numerous biological traces of the remains after the death of these organisms or life legacy, and many are buried then silt up. In subsequent years, these biological remains of organic matter decomposition and exhausted, the hard part, such as shell, bones, branches and leaves, and surrounded in the surrounding sediments together after the petrochemical into a stone, but their original form, structure, and even some minor internal structure is still retained; Similarly, the traces left in the biological life can be preserved. These fossilized biological remains, the remains are called fossils. By studying fossils, scientists can come to realize the distant past of biological form, structure, category, can be speculated that millions of years of biological origin, evolution, development process, you can also restore the ecological environment of all stages of Earth’s long geological history.
More and more people are interested in dinosaur fossils, but do you know what create them? Dinosaurs died, the soft tissue in the body due to decay and disappear, bones (including teeth) and other hard-tissue deposition in the sediment, in the absence of oxygen environment, after thousands of years or billions of years of sedimentation, the bone is completely petrochemical and preserved. In addition, the remains of dinosaurs lived, such as the footprints of time petrochemicals into fossil preserved.
The hard parts of the dinosaur bones and teeth by minerals. Minerals in the ground often breaks down and re-crystallization has become more hard, this process is referred to as “petrochemical process. With the constantly thickening of the sediments above the remains of the more buried the deeper, eventually turned into a fossil. Surrounding sediments into hard rock. This process is extremely slow.
In 1999, a teenager in the United States, North Dakota he found a well-preserved dinosaur mummies, you can see its mouth like a duck, and intact skin almost. Now, scientists have from this with the rare dinosaur mummy above to find some organic matter, this means that human beings are expected to quickly uncover the biological secrets of the dinosaurs.
With well-preserved dinosaur mummy found dinosaur shape, size and movement of the standard theory presents a challenge. More importantly, signs of organic matter is stored to be confirmed, it may provide for the study of dinosaur evolution and the biological communities of the irreplaceable basis. These samples allows scientists to study dinosaur proteins and even of DNA, to find important clues about dinosaur life cycle and growth.
And most dinosaur specimens, Dakota Long has become fossilized mummy-like, mean that the dinosaur almost all the skin as well as part of the connective tissue like tendons and ligaments and the like along with its bones to be preserved. This allows scientists to it a detailed “autopsy”, and reconstruct the details of its anatomical structure.These results will be held on the 9th in the National Geographic Channel (National Geographic the Channel) broadcast a documentary “dinosaur autopsy fully rendered.
According to the dinosaur skin, the researchers first calculated the volume of its tail and hind legs, usually, these will be data only in accordance with the skeleton structure to infer, and the estimated results are often unreliable. Anatomy shows that the Edmonton Dragon’s ass is much greater than we previously thought. Dr. Manning said: “This animal has a big ass. Its hind legs should be than we can imagine the awkward if it kicked, and certainly will not stand.” It also means that Dakota dragon than we imagine run faster.
Dinosaur fossils have been known about for millennia, though their true nature was not recognized; the Chinese considered them to be dragon bones, while Europeans believed them to be the remains of giants and other creatures killed by the Great Flood. The first dinosaur species to be identified and named as Iguanodon, discovered in 1822 by the English geologist Gideon Mantell, who recognized similarities between his fossils and the bones of modern iguanas. Two years later, the Rev William Buckland, professor of geology at Oxford University, became the first person to describe a dinosaur in a scientific journal — in this case Megalosaurus bucklandii, found near Oxford.
The study of these “great fossil lizards” became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in 1842 the English paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term “dinosaur”. He recognized that the remains that had been found so far — Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus — had a number of features in common, so decided to present them as a distinct taxonomic group. With the backing of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, husband of Queen Victoria, Owen established the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits.
In 1858, the first known American dinosaur was discovered in marl pits of the small town of Haddonfield, New Jersey (although fossils had been found before, their nature had not been identified). The creature was named Hadrosaurus foulkii, after the town and the discoverer, William Parker Foulke. It was an extremely important find: Hadrosaurus was the first nearly complete dinosaur skeleton ever found and it was clearly a bipedal creature. This was a revolutionary discovery, as it had been thought by most scientists that dinosaurs walked on four feet like lizards.
Foulke’s discoveries sparked a dinosaur mania in the United States which was exemplified by the fierce rivalry of Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, who each competed to outdo the other in finding new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars. Their feud lasted for nearly 30 years and only ended in 1897 when Cope died after spending his entire fortune in the dinosaur hunt. Marsh won the contest by virtue of being better funded through the US Geological Survey. Cope’s collection is now at the
American Museum of Natural History in New York, while Marsh’s is displayed at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University.
Since then, the search for dinosaurs has been carried to every continent on Earth. This includes Antarctica, where the first dinosaur, a nodosaurid Ankylosaurus, was discovered on Ross Island in 1986, though it was 1994 before an Antarctic dinosaur, the Cryolophosaurus ellioti, was formally named and described in a scientific journal. Current “hotspots” include southern South America (especially Argentina) and China, which has produced many exceptionally well-preserved feathered dinosaurs.
That’s what the findings of an interdisciplinary group of UC Berkeley researchers appears to indicate. After studying the ways in which lizards — and probably dinosaurs before them — use their tails to maintain balance when leaping, the team of biologists and engineers has applied that prehistoric technology to a robotic car dubbed Tailbot. Researchers point to a famous scene from the film Jurassic Park, in which a velociraptor leaps from a balcony to a tyrannosaurus skeleton, as an example of their idea.
The cutting-edge work could lead to practical advances in the field of robotics that enable more durable, nimble machines to function in hectic and uncertain situations, including disaster relief missions. In radioactive environments, for example, robots could one day successfully carry out operations too dangerous for human operatives.
“Engineers quickly understood the value of a tail,” Thomas Libby, a team member and Berkeley graduate student in mechanical engineering, told the campus news center. “Robots are not nearly as agile as animals, so anything that can make a robot more stable is an advancement, which is why this work is so exciting.”
Tailbot is equipped with a small gyroscope that detects its angle and sends feedback to the robot’s tail. The tail then adjusts accordingly to rebalance the machine. When dropped nose-down, Tailbot can right itself before dropping a foot, researchers say.
UC Berkeley integrative biology professor Robert Full leads the team of researchers and has studied geckos for the past two decades, analyzing how the lizards’ toe hairs help them climb smooth surfaces such as glass and how their tails help them avoid dangerous falls and slips.
More recently, Full and six students used motion capture technologies to record how the red-headed African Agama lizard uses its tail. When the lizard ran down a low-traction ramp to leap to a nearby surface, the lack of friction before take-off caused it to slip and spin haphazardly. But the lizard used its tail to counteract the imbalance. Full and his team took note, creating a mathematical model to help understand the lizard’s adjustments and apply similar functionality to Tailbot.